小乘

Hīnayāna [lang id =1028]希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the [lang id =1028]四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the [lang id =1028]十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles [lang id =1028]二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: [lang id =1028]倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; [lang id =1028]成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the[lang id =1028]律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first [lang id =1028]上坐部 and [lang id =1028]大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk [lang id =1028]大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the [lang id =1028]大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, [lang id =1028]上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, [lang id =1028]根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and [lang id =1028]正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, [lang id =1028]五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see [lang id =1028]小乘十八部.
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小乘者, 即人天乘也。 謂人天以五戒十善為乘, 運出四趣, 故名小乘。 (五戒者, 不殺、 不盜、 不邪婬、 不妄語、 不飲酒也。 十善者, 不殺、 不盜、 不邪婬、 不妄語、 不兩舌、 不惡口、 不綺語、 不貪欲、 不瞋恚、 不邪見也。 四趣者, 修羅趣、 餓鬼趣、 畜生趣、 地獄趣也。 )
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聲聞緣覺的法門, 以修身自利為宗旨, 其最高果位為阿羅漢果及辟支佛果。 聲聞乘修四諦法, 自凡夫至阿羅漢, 論時間, 速者三生, 遲者六十劫, 其修行的方便有七, 得果有四。 見聲聞乘條。 緣覺乘修十二因緣, 自凡夫至辟支佛, 論時間, 速者四生, 遲者一百劫, 其修行重在悟證, 悟所到處, 便是證所到處, 故無明顯的位階可言。

Dictionary of Buddhist terms. 2013.

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  • 小乘 — 佛教語。 梵文Hīnayāna(希那衍那)的意譯。 指小乘佛教。 早期佛教的主要流派, 注重修行、持戒, 以求得“自我解脫”。 公元一世紀左右, 佛教中出現了主張“普度眾生”的新教派, 自稱“大乘”, 而稱原有的教派為“小乘”。 《百喻經‧送美水喻》: “如來法王有大方便, 於一乘法分別說三。 小乘之人聞之歡喜, 以為易行, 修善進德, 求度生死。” 魯迅 《朝花夕拾‧無常》: “我也沒有研究過小乘佛教的經典, 但據耳食之談, 則在 印度 的佛經裏, 焰摩天是有的, 牛首阿旁也有的,… …   Big Chineese Encyclopedy

  • 小乘 — 拼音: xiao3 sheng4 解释: 佛教用语。 相对于大乘以成佛为最终的理想境界而言。 大乘佛教徒称那些以证得阿罗汉果为终极理想的佛教宗派为“小乘”。 如经部、 正量部、 说一切有部等。 [反] 大乘 …   Taiwan national language dictionary

  • 小乘 — 拼音:xiao3 sheng4 佛教用語。 相對於大乘以成佛為最終的理想境界而言。 大乘佛教徒稱那些以證得阿羅漢果為終極理想的佛教宗派為“小乘”。 如經部、 正量部、 說一切有部等。 [反] 大乘 …   Taiwan traditional national language dictionary

  • 小乘 — xiǎochéng [Hinayana] 佛教中较保守的一个小宗派, 主要流传于斯里兰卡、 缅甸、 泰国和柬埔寨等地, 信奉巴利文佛教经典, 认为通过自律斋戒和虔诚默祷即可成为罗汉 …   Advanced Chinese dictionary

  • 小乘涅槃与大乘涅槃 → 小乘涅槃與大乘涅槃 — 小乘的涅槃和大乘的涅槃。 小乘的涅槃, 滅生死而涅槃; 大乘的涅槃, 生死本來就是涅槃。 又小乘的涅槃, 只斷界內分段生死而已; 大乘的涅槃, 同時也斷界外之變易生死。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 小乘涅槃與大乘涅槃 — 小乘的涅槃和大乘的涅槃。 小乘的涅槃, 滅生死而涅槃; 大乘的涅槃, 生死本來就是涅槃。 又小乘的涅槃, 只斷界內分段生死而已; 大乘的涅槃, 同時也斷界外之變易生死。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 小乘經 — 宣說四諦或十二因緣的道理的經典, 如四部阿含經是。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 小乘三藏 — 小乘的經律論三藏, 四部之阿含經等為經藏, 四分五分十誦律等為律藏, 六足發智論等為論藏。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 小乘论藏 → 小乘論藏 — 謂俱舍等論, 唯決擇詮辯小乘聲聞、 緣覺修證之法, 是名小乘論藏。 (梵語俱舍, 華言藏, 謂有包含攝持之義也。 ) …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 小乘戒 — 小乘律藏所說的戒律, 有五戒八戒十戒與具足戒等數種。 在具足戒中, 比丘戒有二百五十條戒, 比丘尼戒有三百四十八條戒, 這些具足戒雖然是小乘行人所應受持, 就是大乘行人也是一樣要受持這種具足戒的。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

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